The official language of South Sudan is English, while many also speak Arabic. The population is currently about 6 million and the region has been affected by over two decades of war, causing major depletion in resources, infrastructure, noticeable destructions and massive displacement of its populace. The war has led to the deaths of over 2 Million people in the region and there are many displaced as refugees in many countries. A lot of southern Sudanese are currently taking refuge in Israel and are happy to come back home to the new country to join in developing the new nation. Most of the residents of South Sudan live in rural and subsistence society, with no adequate electricity, water or other infrastructures. The larger part of Southern Sudanese practice traditional religions, the rest majority are Christians. South Sudan have about 200 Ethnic groups, each with different languages.
The new Government of South Sudan has a lot to do in the area of its economy, the new country has one of the weakest economy in the world and very underdeveloped, due to war and infrastructural depletion. The region ranks very high in infant/maternal mortality and female illiteracy. A lot of work needs to be done as most of the sectors needs to be developed from scratch, areas such as health and education needs urgent attention. South Sudan has many natural resources, which if well managed will help the new government's drive to achieve an improved economy. South Sudan is noted to be very prominent in international timber exportation and many other natural resources like; petroleum, iron ore, zinc, chromium ore, copper, mica, silver and gold. The economy of southern Sudan has always been dependent on agriculture, however, there is the prospect of a quick recovery due to large deposit of petroleum in the region.